Artificial Pancreas Systems: Sleeping Without Fear

in , , ,

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and sleep, or lack thereof, are often tied together. Someone living with T1D must navigate a wide range of challenges that can impact sleep, and poor quality of sleep negatively affects your psychological and physical health.

In addition, one of the greatest fears of nighttime is low blood sugar (called hypoglycemia), which occurs when blood-sugar levels fall below 70 mg/dL. Symptoms can include shaking, an accelerated heart rate, and clammy skin. It’s possible to sleep through a hypoglycemic event, but you can wake up tired, confused, sweaty, and can feel lethargic or foggy.

But artificial pancreas systems are changing that.

Artificial pancreas systems (also called automated insulin delivery systems) have two interrelated functions: Monitoring the blood-sugar levels in your body (through a continuous glucose monitor) and automatically providing insulin to keep them in a healthy range (through an insulin pump), via a smart algorithm. By automating much of blood-sugar management, these systems can help improve diabetes-related outcomes and lighten the burden of T1D.

Even during sleep.

Time-in-Range and Sleep

Time-in-range (TIR) is a measurement that tells you what percentage of the day your blood sugars are in your goal range (typically 70-180 mg/dl). The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes spend 70% of their time in the target range, meaning you should aim for roughly 17 out of 24 hours each day to be in range. Unfortunately, less than half of the diabetes population meets this recommendation.[i]

But experts emphasize that even a 5% improvement in TIR—let’s say, going from 60% to 65%—is meaningful, as it translates to one more hour per day spent in-range.[ii]

Now, let’s look at some recent scientific findings in the table below.

Not only can the artificial pancreas systems improve time-in-range, but they can dramatically improve time-in-range during sleep. 

Note: Left click on image to enlarge. 

More time-in-range, even when you’re asleep.  Now that’s research that can help you rest easy and more often than not, wake up on the right side of the bed.

Have a goodnight!

Consult our resources to learn more about diabetes and sleep.

Watch JDRF’s and Tandem’s Facebook Live event (video below) exploring AP systems and improvements in TIR and sleep.

Editor’s Note: This educational content is made possible with support from Tandem Diabetes Care. JDRF produces this content to provide information to our supporters about their potential options for managing their T1D and not as an endorsement of products. Editorial control rests solely with JDRF. 

RX ONLY. The t:slim X2 insulin pump with Control-IQ technology is indicated for patients with type 1 diabetes, 6 years and older. BOXED WARNING: Control-IQ technology should not be used by people under age 6, or who use less than 10 units of insulin/day, or who weigh less than 55 lbs. For full safety information, visit 

[i] Bergenstal RM, Hachmann-Nielsen E, Tarp J, Kvist K, Buse JB. 65-LB: Real-World Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data on Time-in-Range from a U.S. Population, 2015–2019. Diabetes Jun 2021, 70 (Supplement 1); doi: 10.2337/db21-65-LB


[iii] Breton MD, Kovatchev BP. One Year Real-World Use of the Control-IQ Advanced Hybrid Closed-Loop Technology. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2021; 23 (9): 601-608. doi:10.1089/dia.2021.0097

[iv] DuBose S, Bauza C, Verdejo A, Beck RW, Bergenstal RM, Sherr J. Real-world, Patient-Reported and Clinic Data from Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes using the MiniMed 670G Hybrid Closed Loop System. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2021; 10.1089/dia.2021.0176. doi:10.1089/dia.2021.0176


[vi] Lewis DM, Swain RS, Donner TW. Improvements in A1C and time-in-range in DIY closed-loop (Open-APS) users. Diabetes. 2018; 67: 352-OR.